Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of TracStandalone


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Timestamp:
02/09/19 19:37:47 (18 months ago)
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trac
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  • TracStandalone

    v1 v1  
     1= Tracd =
     2
     3Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server.
     4It can be used in a variety of situations, from a test or development server to a multiprocess setup behind another web server used as a load balancer.
     5
     6== Pros ==
     7
     8 * Fewer dependencies: You don't need to install apache or any other web-server.
     9 * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]), even more so since version 0.12 where the HTTP/1.1 version of the protocol is enabled by default
     10 * Automatic reloading: For development, Tracd can be used in ''auto_reload'' mode, which will automatically restart the server whenever you make a change to the code (in Trac itself or in a plugin).
     11
     12== Cons ==
     13
     14 * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache httpd.
     15 * No native HTTPS support: [http://www.rickk.com/sslwrap/ sslwrap] can be used instead,
     16   or [http://trac.edgewall.org/wiki/STunnelTracd stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy.
     17
     18== Usage examples ==
     19
     20A single project on port 8080. (http://localhost:8080/)
     21{{{
     22 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project
     23}}}
     24Stricly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than ''localhost only''. To truly limit it use ''--hostname'' option.
     25{{{
     26 $ tracd --hostname=localhost -p 8080 /path/to/project
     27}}}
     28With more than one project. (http://localhost:8080/project1/ and http://localhost:8080/project2/)
     29{{{
     30 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     31}}}
     32
     33You can't have the last portion of the path identical between the projects since Trac uses that name to keep the URLs of the
     34different projects unique. So if you use `/project1/path/to` and `/project2/path/to`, you will only see the second project.
     35
     36An alternative way to serve multiple projects is to specify a parent directory in which each subdirectory is a Trac project, using the `-e` option. The example above could be rewritten:
     37{{{
     38 $ tracd -p 8080 -e /path/to
     39}}}
     40
     41To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use {{{CTRL-BREAK}}} -- using {{{CTRL-C}}} will leave a Python process running in the background.
     42
     43== Installing as a Windows Service ==
     44
     45=== Option 1 ===
     46To install as a Windows service, get the [http://www.google.com/search?q=srvany.exe SRVANY] utility and run:
     47{{{
     48 C:\path\to\instsrv.exe tracd C:\path\to\srvany.exe
     49 reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters /v Application /d "\"C:\path\to\python.exe\" \"C:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py\" <your tracd parameters>"
     50 net start tracd
     51}}}
     52
     53'''DO NOT''' use {{{tracd.exe}}}.  Instead register {{{python.exe}}} directly with {{{tracd-script.py}}} as a parameter.  If you use {{{tracd.exe}}}, it will spawn the python process without SRVANY's knowledge.  This python process will survive a {{{net stop tracd}}}.
     54
     55If you want tracd to start automatically when you boot Windows, do:
     56{{{
     57 sc config tracd start= auto
     58}}}
     59
     60The spacing here is important.
     61
     62{{{#!div
     63Once the service is installed, it might be simpler to run the Registry Editor rather than use the `reg add` command documented above.  Navigate to:[[BR]]
     64`HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters`
     65
     66Three (string) parameters are provided:
     67||!AppDirectory ||C:\Python26\ ||
     68||Application ||python.exe ||
     69||!AppParameters ||scripts\tracd-script.py -p 8080 ... ||
     70
     71Note that, if the !AppDirectory is set as above, the paths of the executable ''and'' of the script name and parameter values are relative to the directory.  This makes updating Python a little simpler because the change can be limited, here, to a single point.
     72(This is true for the path to the .htpasswd file, as well, despite the documentation calling out the /full/path/to/htpasswd; however, you may not wish to store that file under the Python directory.)
     73}}}
     74
     75For Windows 7 User, srvany.exe may not be an option, so you can use [http://www.google.com/search?q=winserv.exe WINSERV] utility and run:
     76{{{
     77"C:\path\to\winserv.exe" install tracd -displayname "tracd" -start auto "C:\path\to\python.exe" c:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py <your tracd parameters>"
     78
     79net start tracd
     80}}}
     81
     82=== Option 2 ===
     83
     84Use [http://trac-hacks.org/wiki/WindowsServiceScript WindowsServiceScript], available at [http://trac-hacks.org/ Trac Hacks]. Installs, removes, starts, stops, etc. your Trac service.
     85
     86=== Option 3 ===
     87
     88also cygwin's cygrunsrv.exe can be used:
     89{{{
     90$ cygrunsrv --install tracd --path /cygdrive/c/Python27/Scripts/tracd.exe --args '--port 8000 --env-parent-dir E:\IssueTrackers\Trac\Projects'
     91$ net start tracd
     92}}}
     93
     94== Using Authentication ==
     95
     96Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. Digest is considered more secure. The examples below use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the command line.
     97
     98The general format for using authentication is:
     99{{{
     100 $ tracd -p port --auth="base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm" project_path
     101}}}
     102where:
     103 * '''base_project_dir''': the base directory of the project specified as follows:
     104   * when serving multiple projects: ''relative'' to the `project_path`
     105   * when serving only a single project (`-s`): the name of the project directory
     106 Don't use an absolute path here as this won't work. ''Note:'' This parameter is case-sensitive even for environments on Windows.
     107 * '''password_file_path''': path to the password file
     108 * '''realm''': the realm name (can be anything)
     109 * '''project_path''': path of the project
     110
     111 * **`--auth`** in the above means use Digest authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` if you want to use Basic auth.  Although Basic authentication does not require a "realm", the command parser does, so the second comma is required, followed directly by the closing quote for an empty realm name.
     112
     113Examples:
     114
     115{{{
     116 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     117   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" /path/to/project1
     118}}}
     119
     120Of course, the password file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:
     121{{{
     122 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     123   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \
     124   --auth="project2,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \
     125   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     126}}}
     127
     128Another way to share the password file is to specify "*" for the project name:
     129{{{
     130 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     131   --auth="*,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com" \
     132   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     133}}}
     134
     135=== Basic Authorization: Using a htpasswd password file ===
     136This section describes how to use `tracd` with Apache .htpasswd files.
     137
     138  Note: It is necessary (at least with Python 2.6) to install the fcrypt package in order to
     139  decode the htpasswd format.  Trac source code attempt an `import crypt` first, but there
     140  is no such package for Python 2.6.
     141
     142To create a .htpasswd file use Apache's `htpasswd` command (see [#GeneratingPasswordsWithoutApache below] for a method to create these files without using Apache):
     143{{{
     144 $ sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username
     145}}}
     146then for additional users:
     147{{{
     148 $ sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2
     149}}}
     150
     151Then to start `tracd` run something like this:
     152{{{
     153 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="projectdirname,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /fullpath/environmentname
     154}}}
     155
     156For example:
     157{{{
     158 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="testenv,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /srv/tracenv/testenv
     159}}}
     160''Note:'' You might need to pass "-m" as a parameter to htpasswd on some platforms (OpenBSD).
     161
     162=== Digest authentication: Using a htdigest password file ===
     163
     164If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.0/programs/htdigest.html this page] from the Apache manual to get precise instructions.  You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create.  For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like `users.htdigest` it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the [TracIni trac.ini] file.
     165
     166Note that you can start tracd without the --auth argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error.
     167
     168=== Generating Passwords Without Apache ===
     169
     170Basic Authorization can be accomplished via this [http://aspirine.org/htpasswd_en.html online HTTP Password generator].  Copy the generated password-hash line to the .htpasswd file on your system. Note that Windows Python lacks the "crypt" module that is the default hash type for htpasswd ; Windows Python can grok MD5 password hashes just fine and you should use MD5.
     171
     172You can use this simple Python script to generate a '''digest''' password file:
     173
     174{{{
     175#!python
     176from optparse import OptionParser
     177# The md5 module is deprecated in Python 2.5
     178try:
     179    from hashlib import md5
     180except ImportError:
     181    from md5 import md5
     182realm = 'trac'
     183
     184# build the options
     185usage = "usage: %prog [options]"
     186parser = OptionParser(usage=usage)
     187parser.add_option("-u", "--username",action="store", dest="username", type = "string",
     188                  help="the username for whom to generate a password")
     189parser.add_option("-p", "--password",action="store", dest="password", type = "string",
     190                  help="the password to use")
     191parser.add_option("-r", "--realm",action="store", dest="realm", type = "string",
     192                  help="the realm in which to create the digest")
     193(options, args) = parser.parse_args()
     194
     195# check options
     196if (options.username is None) or (options.password is None):
     197   parser.error("You must supply both the username and password")
     198if (options.realm is not None):
     199   realm = options.realm
     200   
     201# Generate the string to enter into the htdigest file
     202kd = lambda x: md5(':'.join(x)).hexdigest()
     203print ':'.join((options.username, realm, kd([options.username, realm, options.password])))
     204}}}
     205
     206Note: If you use the above script you must set the realm in the `--auth` argument to '''`trac`'''. Example usage (assuming you saved the script as trac-digest.py):
     207
     208{{{
     209 $ python trac-digest.py -u username -p password >> c:\digest.txt
     210 $ tracd --port 8000 --auth=proj_name,c:\digest.txt,trac c:\path\to\proj_name
     211}}}
     212
     213==== Using `md5sum`
     214It is possible to use `md5sum` utility to generate digest-password file:
     215{{{
     216user=
     217realm=
     218password=
     219path_to_file=
     220echo ${user}:${realm}:$(printf "${user}:${realm}:${password}" | md5sum - | sed -e 's/\s\+-//') > ${path_to_file}
     221}}}
     222
     223== Reference ==
     224
     225Here's the online help, as a reminder (`tracd --help`):
     226{{{
     227Usage: tracd [options] [projenv] ...
     228
     229Options:
     230  --version             show program's version number and exit
     231  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
     232  -a DIGESTAUTH, --auth=DIGESTAUTH
     233                        [projectdir],[htdigest_file],[realm]
     234  --basic-auth=BASICAUTH
     235                        [projectdir],[htpasswd_file],[realm]
     236  -p PORT, --port=PORT  the port number to bind to
     237  -b HOSTNAME, --hostname=HOSTNAME
     238                        the host name or IP address to bind to
     239  --protocol=PROTOCOL   http|scgi|ajp|fcgi
     240  -q, --unquote         unquote PATH_INFO (may be needed when using ajp)
     241  --http10              use HTTP/1.0 protocol version instead of HTTP/1.1
     242  --http11              use HTTP/1.1 protocol version (default)
     243  -e PARENTDIR, --env-parent-dir=PARENTDIR
     244                        parent directory of the project environments
     245  --base-path=BASE_PATH
     246                        the initial portion of the request URL's "path"
     247  -r, --auto-reload     restart automatically when sources are modified
     248  -s, --single-env      only serve a single project without the project list
     249  -d, --daemonize       run in the background as a daemon
     250  --pidfile=PIDFILE     When daemonizing, file to which to write pid
     251  --umask=MASK          When daemonizing, file mode creation mask to use, in
     252                        octal notation (default 022)
     253}}}
     254
     255Use the -d option so that tracd doesn't hang if you close the terminal window where tracd was started.
     256
     257== Tips ==
     258
     259=== Serving static content ===
     260
     261If `tracd` is the only web server used for the project,
     262it can also be used to distribute static content
     263(tarballs, Doxygen documentation, etc.)
     264
     265This static content should be put in the `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs` folder,
     266and is accessed by URLs like `<project_URL>/chrome/site/...`.
     267
     268Example: given a `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz` file,
     269the corresponding relative URL would be `/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz`,
     270which in turn can be written as `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` (TracLinks syntax) or `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` (relative link syntax).
     271
     272 ''Support for `htdocs:` TracLinks syntax was added in version 0.10''
     273
     274=== Using tracd behind a proxy
     275
     276In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind Apache or another web server.
     277
     278In this situation, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the `[trac] use_base_url_for_redirect` to `true` can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of `[trac] base_url` for doing the redirects.
     279
     280If you're using the AJP protocol to connect with `tracd` (which is possible if you have flup installed), then you might experience problems with double quoting. Consider adding the `--unquote` parameter.
     281
     282See also [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp], [trac:TracNginxRecipe].
     283
     284=== Authentication for tracd behind a proxy
     285It is convenient to provide central external authentication to your tracd instances, instead of using {{{--basic-auth}}}. There is some discussion about this in #9206.
     286
     287Below is example configuration based on Apache 2.2, mod_proxy, mod_authnz_ldap.
     288
     289First we bring tracd into Apache's location namespace.
     290
     291{{{
     292<Location /project/proxified>
     293        Require ldap-group cn=somegroup, ou=Groups,dc=domain.com
     294        Require ldap-user somespecificusertoo
     295        ProxyPass http://localhost:8101/project/proxified/
     296        # Turns out we don't really need complicated RewriteRules here at all
     297        RequestHeader set REMOTE_USER %{REMOTE_USER}s
     298</Location>
     299}}}
     300
     301Then we need a single file plugin to recognize HTTP_REMOTE_USER header as valid authentication source. HTTP headers like '''HTTP_FOO_BAR''' will get converted to '''Foo-Bar''' during processing. Name it something like '''remote-user-auth.py''' and drop it into '''proxified/plugins''' directory:
     302{{{
     303#!python
     304from trac.core import *
     305from trac.config import BoolOption
     306from trac.web.api import IAuthenticator
     307
     308class MyRemoteUserAuthenticator(Component):
     309
     310    implements(IAuthenticator)
     311
     312    obey_remote_user_header = BoolOption('trac', 'obey_remote_user_header', 'false',
     313               """Whether the 'Remote-User:' HTTP header is to be trusted for user logins
     314                (''since ??.??').""")
     315
     316    def authenticate(self, req):
     317        if self.obey_remote_user_header and req.get_header('Remote-User'):
     318            return req.get_header('Remote-User')
     319        return None
     320
     321}}}
     322
     323Add this new parameter to your TracIni:
     324{{{
     325...
     326[trac]
     327...
     328obey_remote_user_header = true
     329...
     330}}}
     331
     332Run tracd:
     333{{{
     334tracd -p 8101 -r -s proxified --base-path=/project/proxified
     335}}}
     336
     337=== Serving a different base path than / ===
     338Tracd supports serving projects with different base urls than /<project>. The parameter name to change this is
     339{{{
     340 $ tracd --base-path=/some/path
     341}}}
     342
     343----
     344See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide, [trac:TracOnWindowsStandalone#RunningTracdasservice Running tracd.exe as a Windows service]